The Definitive Information To Securing Your Web site

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On this definitive find out how to SSL information, we’re going to discover the subject intimately, and supply some nice assets, so you’ll be able to safe your web site with confidence and ease.

Your web site is a helpful asset that you simply’ve poured time, thought, and vitality into. Defending it is important.

One of the best ways to perform this? Arms down–with the presence and energy of HTTPS.

Proceed studying, or leap forward utilizing these hyperlinks:

There’s a good quantity of floor to cowl right here, so let’s get began.

Area Safety Worth

You’ve got most likely observed the shift of many web site URLs going from HTTP to HTTPS over the previous decade, specifically, the final half-dozen years. There’s an fascinating wiki article on the timeline for those who’re eager on extra specifics.

So what’s it that makes HTTPS so good?

A WordPress HTTPS web site makes your on-line enterprise extra reliable to guests. From the second your web site masses of their browser, they see a visible cue that their private data might be extremely guarded in your nook of the world (large internet).

You’ll additionally get an search engine optimisation enhance, as engines like google favor HTTPS web sites. In accordance with Google Webmaster Trends Analysts, SSL is a part of Google’s search rating algorithm.

Being rewarded with improved web page load occasions is one other superior a part of the bundle. Who doesn’t need efficiency beneficial properties?

HTTPS, aka end-to-end encryption, will help stop all kinds of on-line assaults, together with the large baddies generally known as APTs and MitM assaults. Right here’s a fast rundown on these:

  • APTs (Superior Persistent Threats) are assault campaigns through which intruders use steady, clandestine, and complicated strategies to achieve entry to a system, and stay inside for a chronic time period. These have doubtlessly damaging penalties.
  • MitM (Man within the Center) assaults are when a cybercriminal beneficial properties entry to an unsecured or poorly secured Wi-Fi community to intercept and browse transmitted information, capturing login credentials, banking data, and different private data. The attacker may also impersonate the individual or entity you assume you’re speaking to, with a view to steal data.

Sadly, these cyber assaults don’t appear to be slowing down.

Whereas not utterly fool-proof, having HTTPS in your web site will vastly enhance your defenses in opposition to APTs, MitM assaults, malware, direct hacker assaults, and a number of different vulnerabilities.

Subsequent, let’s have a look at how encryption really works.

HTTP vs HTTPS

HTTP (Hypertext Switch Protocol) permits communication between completely different methods―like your browser to an internet server―so you’ll be able to view internet pages or switch information. HTTP strikes information in plain textual content, however is unsecured/available for anybody to learn.

HTTPS (Hypertext Switch Protocol Safe) is HTTP with an added layer of safety. It makes use of SSL (Safe Sockets Layer) certificates to encrypt the data flowing between your browser and the server, defending delicate data from being stolen.

When a web site is secured, HTTPS seems within the URL by way of an SSL certificates. That is indicated by a lock image within the browser bar.

You’ll be able to click on on that little lock to see the certificates data, which gives extra particulars, together with who the cert is issued to (web site proprietor), who it’s issued by (the certificates authority), and the legitimate from/to dates.

SSL lock icon click
SSL certificates particulars might be revealed by clicking on the padlock icon.

The additional layer of safety in HTTPS comes from TLS (Transport Layer Safety) protocol. TLS is simply an up to date, safer model of SSL. 9 occasions out of ten you’ll hear safety certificates known as SSL, largely as a result of it’s the time period persons are used to.

How does HTTPS really work?

In a nutshell… a browser reaches out to a server, and a “handshake” connection is made. Through the handshake, the server sends an SSL certificates that has an uneven public key to the shopper, and a non-public key that’s saved on the webserver (self) finish. This ensures that every one information within the stream is encrypted.

SSL diagram
The way to HTTPS: connecting to safe the SSL certificates.

HTTPS makes use of two kinds of end-to-end encryption, which we’ll now look at in finer element.

Finish-to-Finish Encryption

Uneven encryption is called public-key cryptography. A public secret is used to encrypt the information, whereas a non-public secret is getting used to decrypt the information. The 2 keys are linked and are literally very massive numbers with sure mathematical properties. In case you encode a message utilizing an individual’s public key, they’ll decode it utilizing their matching non-public key.

Symmetric encryption is when just one secret is getting used to encrypt and decrypt the information. The entities will share the identical key throughout communication for encrypting and decrypting the information.

Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)

Each TLS and SSL use an uneven PKI system. Information encrypted by a public key can solely be decrypted by non-public key or the opposite approach spherical.

Personal keys must be stored very securely and by no means distributed or made accessible to anybody aside from the web site proprietor.

Public keys may be distributed to anybody who must decrypt data that was encrypted with the non-public key.

The shopper will create a session key primarily based on algorithms. This session key might be encrypted utilizing the general public key. Then it is going to be despatched to the server.

The server will use the uneven non-public key to decrypt the encrypted session key and can get the session key. The browser will use the session key for encrypting and decrypting the information for the session.

Now the information is secured because the session key might be recognized by the shopper and server. As soon as the session has expired, the method might be repeated once more, for the reason that session key will now not be legitimate.

At present we use the AES encryption algorithm, which was adopted and revealed because the federal commonplace by The Nationwide Institute of Requirements and Know-how (NIST).

Superior Encryption Normal (AES) makes use of a single key as part of the encryption course of. The important thing may be 128 bits (16 bytes), 192 bits (24 bytes), or 256 bits (32 bytes) in size. On condition that the quickest laptop would take billions of years to run by way of each permutation of a 256-bit key, which is legitimate for such a short while, hijacking the session secret is extraordinarily tough. That’s why AES is taken into account an especially safe encryption commonplace.

What’s SSL?

SSL stands for Safe Sockets Layer, and is the usual know-how for holding an web connection safe. It safeguards any delicate information that’s being despatched between two methods, thus stopping information within the stream from being intercepted by unintended recipients who could have felony intent.

That is completed by ensuring that any information transferred between customers and websites, or between two methods, stays unimaginable to learn. It makes use of encryption algorithms to scramble information in transit, stopping hackers from studying it because it’s despatched over the connection.

This contains something delicate or private, similar to names and addresses, logins, emails, bank card numbers, and different monetary data. And it extends over FTP, internet apps, cloud-based computer systems, internet hosting planets (e.g., cPanel), VPNs, intranets, extranets, and DB connections.

To shortly make clear some extent: Though the terminology is used interchangeably, and they’re intrinsically linked, HTTPS shouldn’t be SSL. HTTPS is a mixture of HTTP and both SSL or TLS. So extra precisely, HTTPS is one frequent occasion of SSL.

HTTPS stack diagram
Diagram of an HTTPS stack.

With that stated, let’s transfer on to SSL certificates.

What’s an SSL Certificates?

An SSL certificates encrypts the data that customers provide to a web site, which principally interprets the information into complicated code. Even when somebody managed to steal the information being communicated between the shopper and the server, it will be a large number of gibberish unimaginable to decipher.

SSL Certificates are small information information that digitally bind a cryptographic key to a corporation’s particulars. When put in on an internet server, the HTTPS protocol (over port 443) permits safe connections from an internet server to a browser.

SSL Certificates bind collectively:

  • a site title, server title, or hostname
  • an organizational identification (i.e., firm title) and site

A corporation wants to put in the SSL Certificates onto its internet server to provoke safe classes with browsers. Relying on the kind of SSL Certificates utilized for, the group might be vetted on the acceptable stage.

As soon as HTTPS is put in, all site visitors and communication between the online server and the online browser might be encrypted and safe.

Sorts of SSL Certificates

SSL certificates are used for encryption and validation.

Encryption ensures that site visitors can’t be tampered with by eavesdroppers and enhances the confidentiality and integrity of the data in any transaction. Validation ensures that the 2 speaking events are literally who they are saying they’re.

SSL certificates are categorized by the extent of validation supplied, and the variety of domains or subdomains below the certificates.

Certificates are processed by a Certificates Authority (CA), utilizing software program particularly designed for operating and granting these certificates.

The encryption ranges are the identical for every sort of certificates, which means, none are much less safe than the others. The distinction between them is within the vetting and verification processes wanted to acquire them, the peace of mind worth that comes with that, and the sort and variety of domains which are included.

SSL certificates fall into two categorical areas:

  • Validation Degree
  • Variety of Domains

The SSL Certificates Validation Ranges are:

  • Area Validated (DV)
  • Group Validated (OV)
  • Prolonged Validated (EV)

The SSL Certificates by Variety of Domains are:

  • Single-domain
  • Multi-domain
  • Wildcard

We’re going to get right into a extra detailed description of every of those certificates, together with some primary strategies on who they’re finest for, in addition to a broad concept of related prices. (Pricing is ballpark, because it not solely varies by sort, however by the seller it’s bought from.).

SSL Certificates by Validation Degree

1. Area Validated (DV)

Area validation SSL certificates are the bottom stage of validation. The Certificates Authority merely verifies that the group has management over the involved area. Verification is often completed through e mail, both by making modifications to a DNS file or importing a file provided by the CA to the area. This often takes a couple of minutes to a couple hours to finish the method.

DVs are sometimes utilized by blogs or informational web sites that primarily entertain or inform.

Price is free to minimal. DV certificates are one of many least costly to get.

2. Group Validated (OV)

OVs present a medium stage of validation. This certificates’s main objective is to encrypt delicate data throughout transactions, and to validate enterprise credibility with a high-level of assurance. The Certificates Authority validates the possession of the area together with group data (like title, metropolis, and nation), which often takes a couple of days.

OVs are sometimes required for industrial and public-facing web sites that gather and retailer their clients’ data. Ideally suited for those who promote merchandise or present paid providers on-line.

Price is mid vary. OV certificates fall between DVs and EVs in worth.

3. Prolonged Validated (EV)

EVs are the highest-ranking SSL certificates sort. For these, the CA validates the possession, group data, bodily location, and authorized existence of the corporate. It additionally checks that the group is conscious of the SSL certificates request earlier than approving it. Paperwork are required to certify the corporate identification together with many checks. This often takes a fews weeks.

Internet safety specialists advocate EVs for sectors like e-commerce, banking, social media, healthcare, authorities, and insurance coverage companies. Principally, any entities that deal with consumer fee particulars or massive portions of delicate data ought to get an EV cert.

Price: Costly. EVs are the priciest to get.

SSL Certificates by Variety of Domains

An SSL certificates could also be related to a number of domains (aka, hostnames). As soon as it has been issued, it’s not doable to alter its title sort (e.g., change from a single-name to a wildcard title).

Single-domain SSL certificates

Identical to it sounds, this SSL certificates protects a single area/hostname. The one title certificates is simply legitimate for the area specified with the certificates.

Nonetheless, for those who safe a single-name certificates for www.myspecialsite.com, most certificates authorities will problem the signed certificates with an entry within the discipline for myspecialsite.com as effectively. Browsers will then belief the certificates with or with out previous www.

Multi-domain Certificates

Multi-domain SSL Certificates have modified rather a lot over time. Initially created to assist new-at-that-time Microsoft platforms, they’re often known as Topic Alternate Identify (SAN), and Unified Communication Certificates (UCCs).

A multi-domain SSL certificates permits including, enhancing, and deleting the area within the present certificates. They’re obtainable for DV, OV, and EV varieties.

Certificate types and examples table
Like ice cream, go single or multi scoop (domains), or wild(card) with sprinkles.

Wildcard SSL certificates

Wildcard SSLs be sure that for those who purchase a certificates for one area, you need to use that very same certificates for subdomains. Thus, you safe a base or main area together with limitless subdomains.

As a result of wildcards forged a bigger web than conventional single-name certificates, their profit is three-fold:

  1. It reduces the work for the certificates proprietor to cowl the variety of subdomains related to their area.
  2. It permits a lot higher flexibility in including new subdomains to present websites than different choices.
  3. It tends to be cheaper than for those who had bought a separate certificates for every subdomain.

Wildcard SSL certificates solely safe subdomains at one stage of the URL. Issues get extra sophisticated as you get to the second and third ranges of the URL. If you wish to safe a number of ranges, you’ll both want to make use of a number of wildcards or a multi area wildcard certificates, which might additionally operate as a multi-level wildcard.

The wildcard certificates use an asterisk image to point the subdomain.

If you are going to buy a wildcard certificates for *.myspecialsite.com, you need to use it in any first-level subdomains, similar to:

  • www.myspecialsite.com
  • private.myspecialsite.com
  • solely.myspecialsite.com

Nonetheless, you’ll be able to’t use it for these:

  • www.private.myspecialsite.com
  • private.solely.myspecialsite.com

Any try to serve a number of, grouped subdomains with the certificates will lead to a safety warning in most browsers.

The price for wildcard certificates is commensurate with OV or DV costs, relying on which one is opted for. EVs usually are not obtainable for wildcard SSL certificates.

Identify Attributes

You’ll be able to affiliate a number of domains to an SSL certificates utilizing two completely different attributes:

  • the Widespread Identify (CN)
  • the Topic Different Identify (SAN)

The Widespread Identify permits specifying a single entry (both a wildcard or single-name), whereas the SAN extension helps a number of entries.

In idea, each certificates issued right now is successfully a SAN certificates, because the CA requires including the content material of the frequent title to the SAN as effectively. Even when the certificates covers a single title, it can nonetheless use the SAN extension and embody that single title.

In observe, the phrases “SAN certificates” and “multi-domain certificates” are synonymous, and usually point out a certificates product the place issuers can affiliate multiple area by specifying the content material of the SAN (immediately or not directly).

Any variety of completely different domains may be included within the SAN discipline of the certificates, enabling it to work on any of the included domains.

In contrast to a wildcard, a UCC can cowl a comparatively excessive quantity of domains. A wildcard certificates can solely cowl one area, which can embody a given variety of subdomains for the portion of the area title represented by the wildcard asterisk within the certificates.

Some suppliers can embody wildcards within the SAN discipline, or problem an EV, multi-domain certificates. This enables safety for as much as 100 domains with the assistance of the identical certificates.

This could present important price financial savings in lots of conditions.

What Kind of SSL Certificates is Finest?

SSL Certificates are at all times funding, nonetheless, it’s vital to consider which one will finest go well with what you are promoting wants.

Listed below are a couple of gadgets to ponder when deciding which sort of SSL certificates to get:

  • Variety of domains
  • Degree of assurance required for what you are promoting & clientele
  • Finances issues
  • Issuance time

A typical SSL certificates will often suffice for almost all of people and companies. In case you’re within the finance or insurance coverage sector (regulated industries), or require PCI compliance, prioritized e mail assist, or enterprise-grade safety/efficiency, you’ll probably want an OV or EV.

Encryption Sorts

There are additionally completely different sorts of encryption that you could be come throughout when looking by way of Certificates Authorities:

The upper the bit fee of encryption, the higher the safety. Though, ECC is stronger than RSA, so an ECC 256-bit certificates is stronger than an RSA 2048-bit certificates.

The distinction between RSA and DSA is that the previous is quicker at validating signatures, that are encrypted keys which are used within the technique of issuing an SSL certificates. RSA can also be slower at creating signatures. DSA encryption is the alternative because it’s quicker at creating signatures, however it’s slower when validating them.

The validity interval of a certificates can also be a key consideration. Most bought, commonplace SSL certificates can be found for one to 2 years by default. You may get a extra superior sort with prolonged time durations, for those who really feel the necessity.

The prices of buying SSL certificates varies, however you will get DVs free of charge, or pay monthly to acquire a customized certificates.

For extra recommendations on the kind of certificate you need, take a look at this text.

That concludes our in-depth protection of area safety terminology and kinds. Subsequent up, is the all vital matter of….

The way to Make a Web site HTTPS

So we all know what HTTPS & SSL are, and perceive their utmost significance. Let’s look into what’s concerned in procuring and implementing them.

The way to Get SSL Certificates

There are quite a few choices for buying SSL certificates. A few of the hottest SSL certificates distributors are: Comodo SSL, DigiCert, GeoTrust, SSL.com, and Thawte.

SSL certificates are additionally obtainable without charge. There are presently a number of free SSL certificates suppliers on-line, similar to ZeroSSL and SSL for Free. Our private advice goes to the extremely trusted and very talked-about, Let’s Encrypt.

Let’s Encrypt is a Certificates Authority who gives free SSL certificates. They provide DV sort solely, and these expire each 90 days, so you will have to maintain up with common renewals. To do that, you can use the Certbot ACME shopper, which automates this course of with relative ease, and gives directions on how to take action.

Many high internet hosting suppliers have partnered with Let’s Encrypt to make putting in SSL certificates a painless course of for web site homeowners. (Hey! WPMU DEV is one in every of them.😃) In case your internet hosting supplier gives Let’s Encrypt assist, they’ll provision a certificates in your behalf, set up it, and maintain it up-to-date.

Whereas the Let’s Encrypt SSL certificates are free, internet hosting suppliers are absorbing the executive and administration prices to offer these certificates (acquiring them, implementing them, and holding them legitimate by way of common renewals). Nonetheless, that must be a part of what they give you in internet hosting worth, not one thing for which they cost further charges.

Working example: Let’s Encrypt presently recommends that you simply don’t get their SSL certs through GoDaddy internet hosting. It is because GoDaddy gives automated renewal with their very own certificates solely―as an added-cost characteristic. (At WPMU DEV hosting, we are going to by no means tack on charges for SSL cert renewals.)

In case your internet hosting supplier doesn’t combine Let’s Encrypt, however does assist importing customized certificates, you’ll be able to set up Certbot by yourself laptop and use it in handbook mode. Take a look at Cerbot’s documentation for extra on how to do that. Or, see this useful tutorial from The SSL Retailer on cPanel installation.

Internet hosting Setup Stroll By means of

To present you an concept how straightforward putting in an SSL certificates by way of a internet hosting supplier is, we’ll do a fast stroll by way of of 1 now.

The specifics on it will in fact rely upon who you host with, because the finer factors of SSL certificates provisioning are distinctive to every firm.

I’ll share how WPMU DEV’s course of works since I’m internet hosting with them.

Any time a brand new web site is created with a short lived tempurl.host area, or a customized area added to any present web site, WPMU DEV routinely provisions and installs a daily SSL certificates for it.

For many websites, this occurs in a matter of minutes, however can take as much as a few hours. The wait time is predicated on how shortly your DNS settings take to propagate all over the world.

As quickly because the certificates is added to a web site, WPMU DEV forces all site visitors over HTTPS solely.

SSL status in Hub hosting
Verifying a provisioned SSL certificates sort through WPMU DEV’s internet hosting tab within the Hub.

For a single web site certificates, that’s it! You’d be all completed.

If you wish to get free wildcard SSL certificates for each subdomain and subdirectory multisite networks as effectively by way of WPMU DEV, you completely can. Even when you have a subdirectory multisite, you’ll be able to map subdomains to subsites in it, and have all of them lined by the identical wildcard certificates.

A subdomain multisite may be developed with no wildcard certificates, however ensure you take the community stay, or your subdomains will present a safety error when guests try to entry them.

To generate a free wildcard certificates, you solely want so as to add a single file to your main area’s DNS, then recertify the SSL.

Wildcard cert check in Hub hosting
Registered area reminder and motion prompts in WPMU DEV internet hosting, through The Hub.

Find the row of your customized added area that you simply need to use as main, and hover your cursor over the 3-dots menu icon; you’ll see a daily certificates has been routinely provisioned. There’s a immediate there to remind you that if you wish to use a wildcard certificates as an alternative, that you must add the required CNAME to the DNS information of your area.

As soon as the required CNAME has been added, hover once more over the 3-dots menu icon, and click on on the Recheck ACME possibility from the dropdown. The system will routinely confirm the DNS, and generate the wildcard certificates for that area.

To get the information that you must add to your area’s DNS, scroll all the way down to the underside of the display to seek out the positioning’s DNS information. Find the CNAME file (non-compulsory for wildcard SSL certificates), which has two elements: a hostname of _acme-challenge, adopted by the precise file.

Wildcard cert ACME challenge
Wildcard ACME problem – not a poker recreation, however a positive guess.

The hostname and the file have to be copied to your area title system. In case your DNS is linked to the Hub 2.0 DNS Manager, observe the information to shortly replace it.

In case your DNS is managed elsewhere, similar to your area registrar, seek advice from our Registrar Guides documentation, which covers a number of widespread suppliers.

That’s it! Area safety → activated. 💪

Troubleshooting

In case your internet hosting supplier dealt with the change, likelihood is that nothing might be amiss.

In case you did your personal set up, or your host didn’t fairly seal the deal, it’s doable to come across some points.

We’ll check out the commonest one, and find out how to discover and repair it.

Blended Content material Warnings

Blended content material warnings occur when your web site has incorrectly assessed pictures and/or content material as insecure. Principally, each HTTP and HTTPS content material are being loaded to show the identical web page, whereas the preliminary request was safe over HTTPS.

Ought to this occur, your first clue might be visible. Photographs and content material that had appeared usually will now appear to be non-existent or damaged. It’s going to additionally stop the padlock (indicating your web site is safe) from exhibiting in a customer’s browser.

There are two kinds of combined content material:

  • Lively – these are assets that may vastly change the habits of a web site, similar to JavaScript, CSS, fonts, and iframes. Browsers refuse to load energetic combined content material, which frequently leads to affected pages showing utterly unstyled or damaged. Browsers deal with these very aggressively due to the implications in the event that they have been compromised.
  • Passive – these are assets whose influence on the web page’s general habits is extra minimal, similar to pictures, audio, and video. Browsers will load passive combined content material, however will probably change the HTTPS indicator.

To repair this, that you must be certain WordPress SSL is about to show combined content material.

Instruments That Can Assist

SSL Insecure Content Fixer is a extremely used, extremely rated WordPress plugin, designed for this particular objective.

SSL Insecure Content Fixer plugin
SSL Insecure Content material Fixer plugin by WebAware.

Utilizing the SSL Insecure Content material Fixer plugin will remedy most insecure content material warnings with little to no effort. The rest may be recognized with a couple of easy instruments.

Upon set up, SSL Insecure Content material Fixer’s default settings will routinely carry out some primary fixes in your web site, utilizing their Easy repair stage. You’ll be able to choose extra complete repair ranges as wanted by your web site.

You’ll get a community settings web page for those who use WordPress Multisite. By means of this you’ll be able to change settings for all websites inside a community, when you have necessities differing from the community defaults.

WebAware has a incredible walk-through resource on their web site, which is principally the beneath bullet factors, expanded on in nice element. Listed below are the top-level steps:

  • Set up & activate the plugin in your web site
  • Run the take a look at device (to confirm that WordPress can detect HTTPS)
  • Choose the suitable fixer settings in your content material
  • Check your web site (with a browser device or on-line take a look at)
  • Clear up your HTTPS insecure content material warnings
SSL insecure content fixer options screen
SSL Insecure Content material Fixer’s choices for detecting HTTPS to fit your web site configuration.

In case you choose, you’ll be able to examine what’s inflicting insecure combined content material warnings by checking your internet browser’s error console. See the next:

Make certain to refresh your web page after opening your browser’s console, so it masses the insecure content material once more and logs any warnings to the error console.

There are two different free instruments that may report issues along with your web site. They are often extra detailed than the browser consoles, and supply strategies for resolving discovered points.

WhyNoPadlock topline report
Topline report for the content material examined in whynopadlock.com.
SSL.com topline grade
Total grade for the content material examined in ssllabs.com.

These testing web sites are each nice for diagnosing certificates issues, and producing clear, clear studies.

Whynopadlock.com regarded for insecure combined content material as effectively, which is simply what we wished right here.

SSLlabs.com, specifically, had tons of fabric, simply not for combined content material. Doubtlessly helpful although, so worthy of a look-see someday.

In case you’ve gone with a good host for implementing SSL in your websites, you shouldn’t have to fret about any points. Both they gained’t exist to start with, or the assist staff will shortly resolve any that crop up. (WPMU DEV excels in assist, and we’re obtainable 24/7/365. In case you’re trying, strive us with a no-risk free trial.)

Don’t SSLeep on This

A extra thorough understanding of what SSL does positively provides a deeper appreciation of the multi-level influence it makes.

Contemplating the entire pluses it gives, placing HTTPS into place throughout all your websites is a no brainer. Companies who need to turn out to be or stay profitable can’t afford to be with out the digital power discipline that SSL gives.

As you’ve seen on this article, there are some nice choices for getting SSL safety. The quickest and best is to align with a strong host who takes care of this for you. There’s additionally the choice of tinkering in your personal WordPress information, for those who get pleasure from that kind of factor.

Nonetheless you get your HTTPS on, do it, and do it now. You’ll sleep higher realizing your clients’ information (and what you are promoting fame) is secure and sound. Then you’ll be able to catch ZZZ’s as an alternative of hacker’s charges. Or depend what you’ve reaped as an alternative of sheep.

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